By Gray Tuttle, Kurtis R. Schaeffer
Covering the social, cultural, and political improvement of Tibet from the 7th century to the fashionable interval, this source reproduces crucial, hard-to-find essays from the earlier fifty years of Tibetan reports, in addition to a number of new contributions. starting with Tibet's emergence as a neighborhood strength and concluding with its profound modern differences, the gathering is either a common and particular background, connecting the activities of people, groups, and associations to broader old tendencies shaping Asia and the area. With contributions from American, French, German, Italian, chinese language, jap, and Tibetan students, the anthology displays the foreign personality of Tibetan experiences and its a number of, interdisciplinary views. by way of some distance the main concise scholarly anthology on Tibetan civilization in any Western language, this reader attracts a transparent portrait of Tibet's background, its relation to its acquaintances, and its position in international affairs.
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Additional info for The Tibetan History Reader
After the chinese language refused to honor the Tang’s a part of the bilateral contract of 783–784 touching on fee to Tibet for army assistance opposed to the insurgent Zhuci and his Uighur allies (which Tibetan counsel used to be decisive within the rebels’ defeat),11 the Tibetan military of Zhang Gyeltsen back entered to assault the prefectures to the close to northwest of the capital district. 12 while this circulation was once blunted, he grew to become northward to start a crusade of conquest within the southern Ordos. On or approximately December 10, 786, Yanzhou was once taken and garrisoned;13 via December 26 of an analogous yr, Xiazhou, Linzhou, and Yinzhou have been likewise taken. 14 The Tang used to be duly alarmed; while Zhang Gyeltsen advised a peace treaty, the chinese language snapped on the probability. by way of the summer season of 787, every little thing was once set for a treaty to be signed at Pingliang. however the Tibetans then became the tables at the chinese language on July eight, 787, by means of taking pictures and sporting off numerous the Tang generals and different attendants despatched to the meant treaty-signing ceremonies. 15 instantly later on, his target mostly comprehensive, Zhang Gyeltsen ordered the Ordos fortresses destroyed and the garrisons withdrawn. sixteen So ended the 1st interval of Tibetan forays into the Ordos right. the subsequent level virtually with no pause. through the Tibetan-Uighur battle over Tang-held Beshbalïq (Beiting, close to present-day Urumchi) the Uighurs attacked and defeated the Tibetans at Lingzhou (present-day Ningxia). 17 After the Uighurs captured (not, as usually said, “recaptured”) Beshbalïq from Tibet in 792, they pressed the Tibetans southwards, shooting from them Qocho (Gaocheng or Xizhou, within the Turfan melancholy) within the comparable yr. 18 The Tibetans, who it appears nonetheless held Hami (Yizhou), counterattacked—recapturing Liangzhou and at last pushing the Uighurs again to Qocho within the West. Tibet additionally despatched armies back into the Ordos sector. even though in 808 the Uighurs have been capable of take Liangzhou and probably carry it for a brief time,19 the Tibetans spoke back within the following 12 months through sending 50,000 cavalry to assault an Uighur embassy on its go back domestic from China, someplace past Piti Spring (located north of Xi Shouxiang cheng, the “Western urban for Receiving Submission”). 20 Tibetan 136 P a r t I I . I m p e r i a l Ti b e t strain at the Uighurs’ most important lifeline used to be such that during 816 a Tibetan raid is expounded to have reached some extent simply days’ trip from the Uighur capital, Ordubalïq (now often called Karabalgasun). 21 Tibet stored up the strain, to the purpose the place the Uighurs felt the necessity to boast to the chinese language in 821 that not just could they be ready to safeguard the Taihe Princess on her solution to the Uighur capital in Mongolia, yet they'd even ship out 10,000 cavalry through Beshbalïq and 10,000 through Anxi, to push the Tibetans again. 22 in truth, besides the fact that, the Uighurs despatched at so much 3,000 males to the chinese language border close to Fengzhou, and there's no list of any genuine Uighur circulate opposed to the Tibetans at the present. in addition, it used to be certainly purely as a result end of the Sino-Tibetan peace treaty of 821–822, and the Sino-Uighur and Tibetan-Uighur accords of an identical yr, that the Tibetans didn't proceed their raids within the Ordos quarter.